Teaching Kids Why Facts Matter

The other day, I found myself explaining to my very curious children what the definition of fact was and why facts are so important.

First, I asked them “What is a fact?”

My daughter offered that a fact is something that’s real. Ok, I can accept that.

My son said that a fact is something that can’t change. Oops, not true.

I took that opportunity to provide them with examples of facts that can change. The weather, for instance. A simple fact is: It’s not snowing now. But if it starts snowing that fact becomes a falsehood.

My son went on to explain that he was talking about the word fact in math terms. It’s pretty absolute that if you take one number and add another number to it, you get an unchanging fact. True. 

So we all agreed that 2+2 was 4. That is a verifiable fact.

But we couldn’t stop there in our exploration of facts. (Especially not with ex-presidents using their camera/microwaves to spy on current ones and those horrible calamities in Sweden and Bowling Green.)

I then went on to explain to my children that some people in very powerful positions are making up their own ideas of reality and calling them facts these days. And many people are believing them.

I asked the kids if they could see why that would be a problem. Well, they answered, everyone can believe what they want to believe. Hmmmmm. It seems I’ve taught them the value of coexisting with others that don’t share your beliefs. Which makes me a somewhat successful mommy, but doesn’t help when it comes to the importance of discerning reality from its alternative.

So I asked them what would happen if Mommy insisted that 2+2 was 86?

They said they would tell me to use my calculator or my fingers to prove the fact that 2+2 was not 86. Fair enough.

So I asked, what if Mommy was the powerful Queen of the World. And I say that whoever says 2+2 is NOT 86 has to go to jail. Ooooh, they said. They could immediately see this was a problem.

As you can see, I tend to teach with oversimplification and hyperbole. But it gets the point across. The ultimate point it is this: There is really no defense against a person, or group of people, to whom facts don’t matter.

What the American president, the whole executive branch, and the Republicans in Congress are doing right now is manipulating the truth in the attempt to gain more power at the expense of, literally, innocent people’s lives. We cannot let them get away with this. And we cannot let any of their followers get away with it either.

For insight and information on how you can help dam the flood of untruths see How to Communicate Facts in the Age of Trump and 4 Things I Learned Engaging with Trump Supporters.

4 Things I Learned Engaging with Trump Supporters on Facebook

Recently, I wrote a post titled How to Communicate Facts in the Age of Trump which offered some helpful advice on communication, as well as insight into the psyche and motivations of conservatives.

As a data-gathering expedition, I decided to test my own advice and engage some Trump defenders on Facebook. Here’s what I found:

  • If they’re commenting just to be mean, they won’t respond to your request for more communication.

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  • They like to change the topic of conversation.

    The Trump defender in this case is referring to Bernie Sanders:

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In this example, the Trump administration’s ties to Russia turned into a Breitbart-inspired referral to Soros:

Trump russia stay on topic

  • They can sometimes seem very reasonable and even moderate their stance in response to questioning.

    In response to the Mike Pence AOL email hack:

    screen-shot-2017-03-04-at-10-46-26-amscreen-shot-2017-03-04-at-10-46-56-amscreen-shot-2017-03-04-at-10-47-13-am

Until you visit their Facebook page and find this:

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  • Much of the time they just don’t get it.

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To recap, I learned:

  • If they’re commenting just to be mean, they won’t respond to your request for more communication.

  • They like to change the topic of conversation. (This is a YUGE-ly used strategy to put you on the defensive.)

  • They can sometimes seem very reasonable and even moderate their stance in response to questioning. (Until you find a Confederate flag on their Facebook page.)

  •  Much of the time they just don’t get it.

It was seriously difficult to stick to my 4 suggestions for communication, listed in this previous blog post. But I learned some very valuable information by engaging Trump supporters in Facebook discussion. If you try to engage (which I suggest because we have to keep the facts from becoming lost in the shuffle), DO NOT LET YOURSELF BE REDIRECTED. As stated above, this is a strategy used by Trump supporters that is meant to put you on the defensive.

In the (not quite) words of that Star Wars guy at the end of A New Hope: “Stay on Topic. Stay on Topic.” And may the force be with you as you continue on in this new resistance.

Have you tried to engage in discussion with a Trump supporter? How did it go?

Do you have any strategies that worked? That didn’t?

Please like and comment below.

How to Communicate Facts in the Age of Trump

ORIGINAL POST DATE: February 2017

In this age, where the Republican administration is relying on “alternative facts,” gagging federal employees, and barring reputable news sources from White House briefings, effective communication of factual, evidence-based information is now more important than ever.

In order to effectively communicate, two things need to happen:

1) a signal must be transmitted, and

2) a signal must be received.

I have found, in my own political communication with those who do not share my viewpoint, that although I am transmitting what I consider to be thought-out, evidence-based ideas, those ideas fall on deaf ears. That is, although I am transmitting a clear signal, my signal is not being received. Therefore, I am not communicating effectively.

My failed communication is partly my fault, and partly the other person’s fault. Let me start by telling you why the other person is at fault, and then I will share some ideas that I’ve been pondering about how to communicate more effectively.

Confirmation bias

First, when talking about how the other person is at fault, we must consider something called confirmation bias. Confirmation bias is the search for and interpretation of information that conforms to one’s preconceived notion of ‘truth.’ That is to say, the receiver only receives information that confirms his ‘truth’ and disregards information that does not. (Think of your favorite Fox News viewer here.)

Further, people who rely on an incompetent (or intentionally lying) source usually surround themselves with others who rely on that same source. They all become more emboldened to believe their ‘truth’ together because they are now not alone in their belief.

Further still, there is even some evidence that people get a rush of dopamine (the addiction chemical) when they come across information–true or not–that confirms their point of view.

Unconscious incompetence and Illusion of explanatory depth

Second, we have unconscious incompetence. This describes people who are unaware that they are NOT knowledgeable on a certain topic. (A simple example is someone who points to a guitar and vehemently insists that it is a giraffe – even posting diatribes on Facebook about it.)

Unconscious incompetence Scott Archer drawing

The interesting part about unconscious incompetence is that we all exhibit this in one form or another. Consider this: “In a study conducted at Yale, graduate students were asked to rate their understanding of everyday devices, including toilets, zippers, and cylinder locks. They were then asked to write detailed, step-by-step explanations of how the devices work, and to rate their understanding again. Apparently, the effort revealed to the students their own ignorance, because their self-assessments dropped. (Toilets, it turns out, are more complicated than they appear.)

Researchers call this the illusion of explanatory depth. In some domains this illusion is just fine. We don’t need to know the details of toilet ‘flush-age’ or exactly how a cylinder lock works in order to properly use these devices.

However, when it comes to politics or climate change or reproductive rights or LGBTQ rights or vaccinations or the 2nd amendment or an immigrant ban (the list goes on), this illusion of explanatory depth becomes dangerous. Citizens are voicing their opinions, voting, and affecting policy (and posting diatribes on Facebook) on issues which they know little about. But these issues affect the health and safety of others greatly.

So what can we do to communicate more effectively when faced with others’ confirmation bias, unconscious incompetence, and illusion of explanatory depth?

The onus is on us

Like it or not, we who are communicating rational, evidence-based information have to bear the burden of changing how we communicate in order to make our message heard. In other words, we should consider marketing the message. We can do this in four ways:

  1. Appeal to emotion. Understand that merely providing statistics does nothing to open the mind or pierce the intellectual barrier of someone with confirmation bias, unconscious incompetence, or the illusion of explanatory depth. Simply put, citing the statistic that a person’s chance of dying in an airplane crash is one in 11 million, will do nothing to quell the fears of a terrified air passenger clutching his armrests on takeoff. We are emotional beings. (As a side note, appealing to emotion is something that science communicators definitely need to use more of.)

    emotion appeal climate change science
    My attempt at appealing to emotion in debating a climate change denier.
  2. Understand that conservatives and liberals process the world in very different ways. A recent study by John Hibbing at the University of Nebraska (summarized here) showed that conservatives have a stronger negativity bias than liberals do. That is, they focus more on negative stimuli and respond accordingly, suggesting they have more of a “threat-oriented biology.” Furthermore, a 2003 study provided evidence that conservatives also have a “need for certainty” and an “intolerance of ambiguity.” This explains their stance on many issues including gun ownership, immigrant bans, LGBTQ discrimination, etc.
  3. Invoke nostalgia, and the return to a “better” time. Conservatives love the thought of “restoring” America to its former glory. Even if the aim is to restore a glory that never existed. (And we all know that the nostalgia is for a time in which many marginalized people did not have the rights they now have.) Researchers at the University of Cologne in Germany decided to test this restoration bias when it comes to environmentalism. Their recent study found that conservative thinkers donated more to a hypothetical environmental charity that aimed to restore the planet to a previously healthy state, rather than one that favored preventing a future disaster.
  4. Exploit the illusion of explanatory depth. If someone is making an untrue claim, ask for a deeper explanation of the topic. As in the Yale study above, that person may expose their own unconscious incompetence to themselves (thereby making it conscious), and will less fervently defend their view. Hopefully, just exposing their lack of important knowledge will lead them to seek out factual information to fill in that gap. (I know, it’s a long shot.) N.B.: This approach may backfire if engaging in debate on social media, as your debate partner may realize his lack of explanatory depth and provide you with a link to an article from their favorite right-wing blog.
failed-communication
My failed attempt at exploiting the illusion of explanatory depth. (Note the person who runs the linked website won the Breitbart Award for Excellence in Online Journalism from the Americans for Prosperity Foundation in May 2015.)

 

Facts are vitally important to the survival of our democracy. It’s time to start calling out the people who are peddling in the currency of unverifiable information. The old strategy of ‘ignore them and they’ll go away’ isn’t working anymore. Engaging in civil debate with those who are spouting false statements that are not supported by any scientific evidence is a now a civic responsibility. Arm yourself with evidence-based information and the strategies outlined above.

Works Cited

Beinart, Peter. “The Republican Obsession With ‘Restoring’ America.” The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 13 Nov. 2014. Web. 25 Feb. 2017.

Caruso, Catherine. “Make Earth Great Again!–Here’s How.” Scientific American. N.p., 03 Feb. 2017. Web. 25 Feb. 2017.

Kolbert, Elizabeth. “Why Facts Don’t Change Our Minds.” The New Yorker. The New Yorker, 17 Feb. 2017. Web. 25 Feb. 2017.

Scientists Are Beginning to Figure Out Why Conservatives Are… Conservative.” BillMoyers.com. N.p., 18 July 2014. Web. 25 Feb. 2017.

Do you have any other strategies to add? Please share in the comments below.

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